Articles in War and Society, Vol. 31, No. 3

The latest edition of War and Society includes a couple of interesting articles dealing with two aspects of the Second World War; namely conscription and loyalty and the conduct of the strategic bombing campaign and its legitimacy.

Gustav Hendrich, ‘Allegiance to the Crown: Afrikaner Loyalty, Conscientious Objection, and the Enkeldoorn Incident in Southern Rhodesia During the Second World War’

After the establishment of Southern Rhodesia (today Zimbabwe) in the 1890s, many Afrikaners migrated there from South Africa in search of job opportunities and a better quality of life. As the Afrikaner community became established as a significant minority group, they were compelled to heed the authoritative decisions and policy regulations of a British colony particularly through an obligation to give their military support in matters of war. This article seeks to address the repercussions caused by the attempts of some Afrikaners to disobey or resist compulsory military conscription, as well as an incident in 1944 that highlighted the disparity between Afrikaans- and English-speaking Rhodesians.

Joris A. van Esch, ‘Restrained Policy and Careless Execution: Allied Strategic Bombing on the Netherlands in the Second World War’

This article examines the nature of Allied strategic bombing on the Netherlands in the Second World War. It discusses the endless controversy on strategic bombing, and adds the policy of bombing occupied countries, especially the Dutch involvement in bombing policy development, a quantitative analysis of bombing on the Netherlands, and three case studies to the existing narrative. The paper concludes that Allied bombing policy towards the Netherlands sought to maintain a balance between the usefulness of bombing and the risk of collateral damage. Further, it reveals the absolute magnitude of the bombing campaign in the Netherlands, which contrasts with existing history. This article concludes that the nature of strategic bombing on the Netherlands, notwithstanding the fact of sincere intentions and restrained policies, was that the execution of the bombardments regu- larly failed to attain the defined bombing goals. These failures caused extensive collateral damage, as illustrated by three case studies: bombardments on Amsterdam, Nijmegen, and The Hague.

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